Château de Chaumont

Château de Chaumont is located in Chaumont-sur-Loire, France. The castle was constructed on the left bank overlooking the Loire River. Built in the 10thcentury by Odo I, Count of Blois, the original castle was destroyed by order of King Louis XI in 1495, due to an unsuccessful rebellion by Pierre d’Amboise. The Renaissance castle was rebuilt in the 15th century by Pierre’s son, Charles I d’Amboise. Charles I, added the north and west wings in a Gothic defensive style, with a wall-walk and dry moats. Catherine de Medici purchased the castle in 1550 and upon the death of her husband King Henry II, she forced his mistress Diane de Poitiers to accept the castle in exchange for Château de Chenonceau. The castle eventually passed to the Duke of Bouillon and continued to change ownership numerous times throughout its history. The comte d’Aramon purchased the château in 1833 and began to renovate the neglected castle; he even added a museum for medieval arts. The castle boasts round crenelated towers, conical roofs, a 16thcentury chapel, a courtyard, and an ornamental garden. The sugar heiress, the Princess of Broglie purchased the castle in 1875; her husband added the luxury stables in 1877. The family also updated the castle and replanted the English-style garden. Due to financial difficulties, she was forced to sell the castle in 1938 to the State. In 2007, the estate was transferred to the French government. The castle is open to the public and serves as a museum.

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Château Biron

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Châteaux Biron

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Photo

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Marble

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Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term “marble” to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone.[1] Marble is commonly used forsculpture and as a building material.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marble

Vault (architecture)

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Vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.[1] The parts of a vault exert lateral thrust that requires a counter resistance. When vaults are built underground, the ground gives all the resistance required. However, when the vault is built above ground, various replacements are employed to supply the needed resistance. An example is the thicker walls used in the case of barrel or continuous vaults. Buttresses are used to supply resistance when intersecting vaults are employed.

The simplest kind of vault is the barrel vault (also called a wagon or tunnel vault) which is generally semicircular in shape. The barrel vault is a continuous arch, the length being greater than its diameter. As in building an arch, a temporary support is needed while rings of voussoirs are constructed and the rings placed in position. Until the topmost voussoir, the keystone, is positioned, the vault is not self-supporting. Where timber is easily obtained, this temporary support is provided by centering consisting of a framed truss with a semicircular or segmental head, which supports the voussoirs until the ring of the whole arch is completed. With a barrel vault, the centering can then be shifted on to support the next rings.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vault_%28architecture%29

What is the differnce between limestone, sands…

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The difference is in the substances/minerals that make them: 

Limestone is made of calcium carbonate (and at times calcium magnesium carbonate) and it originates from the compression and cementing of the remains of corals or the disintegration and recementing of its constituent minerals. Limestone is relatively soft when pure and it is permeable, but it is hard to break apart and it can be corroded overtime by rainwater, a weak acid. Limestone is common on coral islands, partially coral islands and in certain volcanic regions. 

Sandstone is made when sand (yellow, white or black) is cemented together and made hard enough to be termed a rock. Sandstone can be easily broken apart, easily scratched, and it is permeable, however, sandstone (unless it is made from white sand which itself is made up of coral) is not easily corroded by rainwater. Sandstone can be found on beaches, along rivers and lakes and in desert regions. 

Shale is made when mud, sand and silt are piled one on top of the other and compressed. Shale is not very permeable, it easily gives way when saturated with water, and it is not easily corroded by rainwater. Shale is usually found where there are large water bodies, or where such water bodies used to exist.

Sandstone

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Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.

Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth’s crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographicfeatures, certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions.

Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity.

Quartz-bearing sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandstone